使用位运算进行取模


一般取模 $A mod B$

12%8=4

如果 $B = 2^n$ 以使用 $&(B-1)$ 代替 $%B$ 来取模.

12&(8 -1) = 4
12&(2^3 – 1) = 4

glibc strlen 就用到了

#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#undef strlen

#ifndef STRLEN
# define STRLEN strlen
#endif

/* Return the length of the null-terminated string STR.  Scan for
   the null terminator quickly by testing four bytes at a time.  */
size_t
STRLEN (const char *str)
{
  const char *char_ptr;
  const unsigned long int *longword_ptr;
  unsigned long int longword, himagic, lomagic;

    /*利用取模运算,控制这里最大为 str + 8*/
  /* Handle the first few characters by reading one character at a time.
     Do this until CHAR_PTR is aligned on a longword boundary.  */
  for (char_ptr = str; ((unsigned long int) char_ptr
            & (sizeof (longword) - 1)) != 0;
       ++char_ptr)
    if (*char_ptr == '\0')
      return char_ptr - str;

  /* All these elucidatory comments refer to 4-byte longwords,
     but the theory applies equally well to 8-byte longwords.  */

  longword_ptr = (unsigned long int *) char_ptr;

  /* Bits 31, 24, 16, and 8 of this number are zero.  Call these bits
     the "holes."  Note that there is a hole just to the left of
     each byte, with an extra at the end:
     bits:  01111110 11111110 11111110 11111111
     bytes: AAAAAAAA BBBBBBBB CCCCCCCC DDDDDDDD
     The 1-bits make sure that carries propagate to the next 0-bit.
     The 0-bits provide holes for carries to fall into.  */
  himagic = 0x80808080L;
  lomagic = 0x01010101L;
  if (sizeof (longword) > 4)
    {
      /* 64-bit version of the magic.  */
      /* Do the shift in two steps to avoid a warning if long has 32 bits.  */
      himagic = ((himagic << 16) << 16) | himagic;
      lomagic = ((lomagic << 16) << 16) | lomagic;
    }
  if (sizeof (longword) > 8)
    abort ();

    /*代替一次比较一个character,每次读取多个 byte,然后一起比较,提高了读取的效率。就是批处理的思想*/
  /* Instead of the traditional loop which tests each character,
     we will test a longword at a time.  The tricky part is testing
     if *any of the four* bytes in the longword in question are zero.  */
  for (;;)
    {
      longword = *longword_ptr++;

      if (((longword - lomagic) & ~longword & himagic) != 0)
    {
      /* Which of the bytes was the zero?  If none of them were, it was
         a misfire; continue the search.  */

      const char *cp = (const char *) (longword_ptr - 1);

      if (cp[0] == 0)
        return cp - str;
      if (cp[1] == 0)
        return cp - str + 1;
      if (cp[2] == 0)
        return cp - str + 2;
      if (cp[3] == 0)
        return cp - str + 3;
      if (sizeof (longword) > 4)
        {
          if (cp[4] == 0)
        return cp - str + 4;
          if (cp[5] == 0)
        return cp - str + 5;
          if (cp[6] == 0)
        return cp - str + 6;
          if (cp[7] == 0)
        return cp - str + 7;
        }
    }
    }
}
libc_hidden_builtin_def (strlen)

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